SOCRATES J. TZARTOS – Managing Director

Emeritus Professor, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, and Emeritus researcher of the Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Immunology at the Hellenic Pasteur Institute in Athens. Scientific advisor of Tzartos NeuroDiagnostics.
He received his Ph.D. in Biology in 1976 from the University of Athens. He then performed postdoctoral research at the University of Cambridge, UK (76-78), the Salk Institute in San Diego, Calif. (78-81) and the Institut Pasteur, Paris (81-82).
Since 1983 he has been working at the Hellenic Pasteur Institute as a researcher (1983-1988), Research Director (1989 to 2001), collaborating Professor (2001-2016) and Emeritus researcher (2016-today). Between 2001-2012  he served in parallel as Professor of Immunobiology at the Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, until his retirement in 2012. In 2013 he was elected Emeritus Professor at the University of Patras. He has supervised 16 postdoctoral researchers, 25 PhD students and many graduate and undergraduate students. He is a full member of the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO).
Research activities. Since 1978, he studies mostly myasthenia gravis (MG) and acetylcholine receptors (AChR), the autoantigen in MG. His involvement with MG contributed to the creation of the Hellenic MG Association, with which he maintains close links. With his collaborators they have studied the characteristics of the main immunogenic and pathogenic region of AChR and are developing a specific treatment for MG. They are also studying the structure and pharmacology of neuronal AChRs for the future design of drugs for neurological diseases, and have solved the high resolution structure of two AChR subunits (Zouridakis et al., Nature Str. & Mol. Biol. 2014; Kouvatsos et al. PNAS 2016). Recently they have also contributed to the discovery of the third autoantigen in MG, the LRΡ4, and have discovered a new autoantigen for neuromyelitis optica, the aquaporin-1. He has published 195 original articles in international journals and 102 reviews and has three patents. Citations to his publications are >12000, with an H-index >54. For his research he has received 17 grants from the European Community (in the 6 as coordinator) and 40 grants from other international and national organizations. Tzartos NeuroDiagnostics is involved in three research grants, in one as coordinator (a Greek-Israeli bilateral grant), in another as scientific responsible (a Greek grant),and in the third (Horizon 2020) as partner.
Laboratory diagnosis of neurological diseases. As a postdoctoral fellow (during 1978-81) of Jon Lindstrom (who showed the role of anti-AChR antibodies in MG and developed the first diagnostic test for an autoimmune neurological disease), he brought in 1983 in Greece this test. For 30 years, he maintained and developed the immunochemical diagnosis of MG in Greece, supported by many investigations. In recent years his research activities have been expanding to other neuroimmune diseases such as neuromyelitis optica, and this research expansion is consistent with the continuous increase of the range of serological tests for neuroimmune diseases which he performs.
The employees of Tzartos NeuroDiagnostics have acquired unique laboratory experience and deep knowledge of the relevant diagnostics while working with S. Tzartos, dividing their time between research and diagnosis. Much of their research has been on the development of new diagnostics for neuroimmune diseases (illustrated in recent publications and in 2 of their 3 patents). Of note is the discovery of anti-LRΡ4 antibodies in MG (Zhang, Tzartos et al., Arch. Neurol. 2012) and in ALS (J. Tzartos et al. 2014), and of the anti-aquaporin-1 antibodies in neuromyelitis optica (J. Tzartos et al., PloS-1, 2013, and relevant patent).
Recently his team has led three international studies (laboratories and clinics from 13 countries with sera from ~800 'seronegative' MG patients for the extensive study of anti-LRP4 antibodies (Zisimopoulou et al., 2014), anti-MuSK antibodies with cell based assay (Tsonis et al. 2015 ) and anti-titin antibodies with RIA (Stergiou et al., 2016) in "seronegative" MG.
Biopathologist: Lambros Kouros. He graduated in Medicine in 1989. He obtained his specialty in Clinical Microbiology – Biopathology (1996) and since 1996 he is continuously working as Scientific Officer in large Diagnostic Centers of Athens. He has extensive in expertise laboratory diagnosis.
Nuclear Physician: Theodore Pipikos. He received his medical degree in 2004. He was appointed nuclear physicist in 2010.
The scientists carrying out the analyses are highly trained with many years of relevant training in S. Tzartos’ laboratories. The group consists of a Ph.D. Chemist, a Ph.D. Biologist, four Biologists/Biochemists with postgraduate diplomas, a laboratory manager with postgraduate diploma, while the initial processing of biological samples is undertaken by 3 experienced technologists.


  1. Yilmaz V, Ulusoy C, Hajtovic S, Turkoglu R, Kurtuncu M, Tzartos J, Lazaridis K, Tuzun E. Effects of Teriflunomide on B Cell Subsets in MuSK-Induced Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis and Multiple Sclerosis. Immunol Invest. 2020 Jun 29:1-14. doi: 10.1080/08820139.2020.1785491. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32597289.
  2. Breza M, Bourinaris T, Efthymiou S, Maroofian R, Athanasiou-Fragkouli A, Tzartos J, Velonakis G, Karavasilis E, Angelopoulou G, Kasselimis D, Potagas C, Stefanis L, Karadima G, Koutsis G, Houlden H. A homozygous GDAP2 loss-of- function variant in a patient with adult-onset cerebellar ataxia. Brain. 2020 Jun 1;143(6):e49. doi: 10.1093/brain/awaa120. PMID: 32428220; PMCID: PMC7296852.
  3. Savaş M, Tzartos J, Küçükali Cİ, Dursun E, Karagiorgou K, Gezen-Ak D, Türkdoğan D, Papaconstantinou A, Başoğlu S, Hacıhafızoğlu N, Kutlubay B, Tzartos S, Tüzün E. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-antibody in children with focal seizures of undetermined cause. Acta Neurol Belg. 2020 Apr 24. doi: 10.1007/s13760-020-01361-y. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32333263.
  4. Prevezianou A, Tzartos JS, Dagklis IE, Bentenidi E, Angelopoulos P, Bostantjopoulou S. Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration in a patient with breast cancer associated with carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII autoantibodies. J Neuroimmunol. 2020 Jul 15;344:577242. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2020.577242. Epub 2020 Apr 14. PMID: 32325285.
  5. Vakrakou A, Constantinides VC, Velonakis G, Tzartos JS, Stefanis L, Kapaki E, Paraskevas GP. Paraneoplastic basal ganglia encephalitis associated with anti- CV2/CRMP-5 and anti-Yo antibodies in a patient with non-small-cell lung cancer. Neurol Sci. 2020 Apr 19. doi: 10.1007/s10072-020-04399-1. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32307664.
  6. Yetimler B, Tzartos J, Şengül B, Dursun E, Ulukan Ç, Karagiorgou K, Gezen-Ak D, Sezgin M, Papaconstantinou A, Tzartos S, Orhan EK, Ekizoğlu E, Küçükali Cİ, Baykan B, Tüzün E. Serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-antibody in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Int J Neurosci. 2020 Apr 28:1-5. doi: 10.1080/00207454.2020.1758084. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32303142.
  7. Papa A, Tzartos JS, Sakoutis G, Dardiotis E, Alexiou E, Breza M, Velonakis G, Papamichalis P, Mpampalis D, Komnos A, Karagiorgou A, Papakonstantinou A, Kilidireas C, Hadjigeorgiou GM. Black holes and high levels of neurofilaments in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) - astrocytopathy: a case report. Eur J Neurol. 2020 Apr 4. doi: 10.1111/ene.14244. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32248601.
  8. Tzartos JS, Valsami S, Tzanetakos D, Stergiou C, Dandoulaki M, Barbarousi D, Psimenou E, Velonakis G, Stefanis L, Kilidireas K. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, demyelinating relapse, and AQP1 antibodies after alemtuzumab infusion. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2020 Apr 2;7(3):e711. doi: 10.1212/NXI.0000000000000711. PMID: 32241823; PMCID: PMC7136045.
  9. Koutsouraki E, Michmizos D, Patsi O, Tzartos J, Spilioti M, Arnaoutoglou M, Tsolaki M. A probable role of copper in the comorbidity in Wilson's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob's Diseases: a case report. Virol J. 2020 Mar 13;17(1):35. doi: 10.1186/s12985-020-01309-x. PMID: 32169096; PMCID: PMC7071643.
  10. Lazaridis K, Tzartos SJ. Autoantibody Specificities in Myasthenia Gravis; Implications for Improved Diagnostics and Therapeutics. Front Immunol. 2020 Feb 14;11:212. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.00212. PMID: 32117321; PMCID: PMC7033452.
  11. Tzartos JS, Karagiorgou K, Tzanetakos D, Breza M, Evangelopoulos ME, Pelidou SH, Bakirtzis C, Nikolaidis I, Koutsis G, Notas K, Chroni E, Markakis I, Grigoriadis NC, Anagnostouli M, Orologas A, Parisis D, Karapanayiotides T, Papadimitriou D, Kostadima V, Elloul J, Xidakis I, Maris T, Zisimopoulou P, Tzartos S, Kilidireas C. Deciphering anti-MOG IgG antibodies: Clinical and radiological spectrum, and comparison of antibody detection assays. J Neurol Sci. 2020 Mar 15;410:116673. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2020.116673. Epub 2020 Jan 7. PMID: 31954354.
  12. Vakrakou AG, Evangelopoulos ME, Boutzios G, Tzanetakos D, Tzartos J, Velonakis G, Toulas P, Anagnostouli M, Andreadou E, Koutsis G, Stefanis L, Fragoulis GE, Kilidireas C. Recurrent myelitis and asymptomatic hypophysitis in IgG4-related disease: case-based review. Rheumatol Int. 2020 Feb;40(2):337-343. doi: 10.1007/s00296-019-04502-6. Epub 2020 Jan 2. PMID: 31898763.
  13. Lazaridis K, Baltatzidou V, Tektonidis N, Tzartos SJ. Antigen-specific immunoadsorption of MuSK autoantibodies as a treatment of MuSK-induced experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. J Neuroimmunol. 2020 Feb 15;339:577136. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2019.577136. Epub 2019 Dec 16. PMID: 31855721.
  14. Lebedev DS, Kryukova EV, Ivanov IA, Egorova NS, Timofeev ND, Spirova EN, Tufanova EY, Siniavin AE, Kudryavtsev DS, Kasheverov IE, Zouridakis M, Katsarava R, Zavradashvili N, Iagorshvili I, Tzartos SJ, Tsetlin VI. Oligoarginine Peptides, a New Family of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Inhibitors. Mol Pharmacol. 2019 Nov;96(5):664-673. doi: 10.1124/mol.119.117713. Epub 2019 Sep 6. PMID: 31492697.
  15. Breza M, Koutsis G, Tzartos JS, Velonakis G, Evangelopoulos ME, Tzanetakos D, Karagiorgou K, Angelopoulou G, Kasselimis D, Potagas C, Anagnostouli M, Stefanis L, Kilidireas C. Response to correspondence: Testing for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-IgG) in typical MS. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2019 Oct;35:156-157. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2019.07.018. Epub 2019 Jul 24. PMID: 31376687.
  16. Breza M, Koutsis G, Tzartos JS, Velonakis G, Evangelopoulos ME, Tzanetakos D, Karagiorgou K, Angelopoulou G, Kasselimis D, Potagas C, Anagnostouli M, Stefanis L, Kilidireas C. MOG antibody-associated demyelinating disease mimicking typical multiple sclerosis: A case for expanding anti-MOG testing? Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2019 Aug;33:67-69. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2019.05.021. Epub 2019 May 28. PMID: 31158804.
  17. Zouridakis M, Papakyriakou A, Ivanov IA, Kasheverov IE, Tsetlin V, Tzartos S, Giastas P. Crystal Structure of the Monomeric Extracellular Domain of α9 Nicotinic Receptor Subunit in Complex With α-Conotoxin RgIA: Molecular Dynamics Insights Into RgIA Binding to α9α10 Nicotinic Receptors. Front Pharmacol. 2019 May 1;10:474. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.00474. PMID: 31118896; PMCID: PMC6504684.
  18. Varvaressos S, Breza M, Marousi S, Printzou M, Georgoulis A, Papageorgiou E, Kartanou C, Karadima G, Tagaris G, Koutsis G, Tzartos JS. Complex phenotype in a C9ORF72-positive patient with high-titer anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies: neuroimmunology meets neurogenetics. Eur J Neurol. 2019 Jul;26(7):e73-e74. doi: 10.1111/ene.13926. Epub 2019 May 6. PMID: 31059159.
  19. Gilhus NE, Tzartos S, Evoli A, Palace J, Burns TM, Verschuuren JJGM. Myasthenia gravis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2019 May 2;5(1):30. doi: 10.1038/s41572-019-0079-y. PMID: 31048702.
  20. Andreou A, Giastas P, Arnaouteli S, Tzanodaskalaki M, Tzartos SJ, Bethanis K, Bouriotis V, Eliopoulos EE. The putative polysaccharide deacetylase Ba0331: cloning, expression, crystallization and structure determination. Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun. 2019 Apr 1;75(Pt 4):312-320. doi: 10.1107/S2053230X19001766. Epub 2019 Apr 3. PMID: 30950833; PMCID: PMC6450525.
  21. Kryukova EV, Ivanov IA, Lebedev DS, Spirova EN, Egorova NS, Zouridakis M, Kasheverov IE, Tzartos SJ, Tsetlin VI. Orthosteric and/or Allosteric Binding of α-Conotoxins to Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Their Models. Mar Drugs. 2018 Nov 22;16(12):460. doi: 10.3390/md16120460. PMID: 30469507; PMCID: PMC6315749.
  22. Koneczny I, Rennspiess D, Marcuse F, Dankerlui N, Abdul Hamid M, Mané-Damas M, Maessen J, Van Schil P, Saxena A, Zisimopoulou P, Lazaridis K, Woodhall M, Karagiorgou K, Tzartos JTzartos S, De Baets MH, Molenaar PC, Marx A, Zur Hausen A, Losen M, Martinez-Martinez P. Characterization of the thymus in Lrp4 myasthenia gravis: Four cases. Autoimmun Rev. 2019 Jan;18(1):50-55. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2018.07.011. Epub 2018 Nov 8. PMID: 30414949.
  23. Breza M, Smyrni N, Koutsis G, Anagnostou E, Tzartos J, Velonakis G, Kokkinis C, Kilindireas C, Papavasiliou A, Kotsalis C. Ocular flutter as presenting manifestation of pediatric MOG antibody-associated demyelination: A case report. Mult Scler. 2019 Jan;25(1):122-125. doi: 10.1177/1352458518771872. Epub 2018 Oct 31. PMID: 30379114.
  24. Vakrakou AG, Tzanetakos D, Valsami S, Grigoriou E, Psarra K, Tzartos J, Anagnostouli M, Andreadou E, Evangelopoulos ME, Koutsis G, Chrysovitsanou C, Gialafos E, Dimitrakopoulos A, Stefanis L, Kilidireas C. A case of Alemtuzumab- induced neutropenia in multiple sclerosis in association with the expansion of large granular lymphocytes. BMC Neurol. 2018 Oct 29;18(1):178. doi: 10.1186/s12883-018-1183-4. PMID: 30373566; PMCID: PMC6206708.
  25. Tüzün E, Gezen-Ak D, Tzartos J, Dursun E, Giriş M, Zisimopoulou P, Karagiorgou K, Yetimler B, Küçükali Cİ, İdrisoğlu HA. LRP4 antibody positive amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients display neuropil-reactive IgG and enhanced serum complement levels. Immunol Lett. 2018 Nov;203:54-56. doi: 10.1016/j.imlet.2018.09.011. Epub 2018 Sep 15. PMID: 30227179.
  26. Koutsis G, Breza M, Velonakis G, Tzartos J, Kasselimis D, Kartanou C, Karavasilis E, Tzanetakos D, Anagnostouli M, Andreadou E, Evangelopoulos ME, Kilidireas C, Potagas C, Panas M, Karadima G. X linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and multiple sclerosis: emerging evidence for an association. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2019 Feb;90(2):187-194. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2018-319014. Epub 2018 Sep 8. PMID: 30196252.
  27. Trakas N, Tzartos SJ. Immunostick ELISA for rapid and easy diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. J Immunol Methods. 2018 Sep;460:107-112. doi: 10.1016/j.jim.2018.06.016. Epub 2018 Jul 2. PMID: 30056940.
  28. Wonnacott S, Bermudez I, Millar NS, Tzartos SJ. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2018 Jun;175(11):1785-1788. doi: 10.1111/bph.14209. PMID: 29878346; PMCID: PMC5979630.
  29. Zagoriti Z, Lagoumintzis G, Perroni G, Papathanasiou G, Papadakis A, Ambrogi V, Mineo TC, Tzartos JS, Poulas K. Evidence for association of STAT4 and IL12RB2 variants with Myasthenia gravis susceptibility: What is the effect on gene expression in thymus? J Neuroimmunol. 2018 Jun 15;319:93-99. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2018.03.008. Epub 2018 Mar 17. PMID: 29576322.
  30. Giastas P, Andreou A, Papakyriakou A, Koutsioulis D, Balomenou S, Tzartos SJ, Bouriotis V, Eliopoulos EE. Structures of the Peptidoglycan N-Acetylglucosamine Deacetylase Bc1974 and Its Complexes with Zinc Metalloenzyme Inhibitors. Biochemistry. 2018 Feb 6;57(5):753-763. doi: 10.1021/acs.biochem.7b00919. Epub 2018 Jan 5. PMID: 29257674.
  31. Saxena A, Stevens J, Cetin H, Koneczny I, Webster R, Lazaridis K, Tzartos S, Vrolix K, Nogales-Gadea G, Machiels B, Molenaar PC, Damoiseaux J, De Baets MH, Simon-Keller K, Marx A, Vincent A, Losen M, Martinez-Martinez P. Characterization of an anti-fetal AChR monoclonal antibody isolated from a myasthenia gravis patient. Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 31;7(1):14426. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-14350-8. PMID: 29089519; PMCID: PMC5663942.
  32. Tzartos JS, Stergiou C, Daoussis D, Zisimopoulou P, Andonopoulos AP, Zolota V, Tzartos SJ. Antibodies to aquaporins are frequent in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017 Dec 1;56(12):2114-2122. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kex328. PMID: 28968830.
  33. Lazaridis K, Dalianoudis I, Baltatzidi V, Tzartos SJ. Specific removal of autoantibodies by extracorporeal immunoadsorption ameliorates experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. J Neuroimmunol. 2017 Nov 15;312:24-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2017.09.001. Epub 2017 Sep 6. PMID: 28912035.
  34. Altıokka-Uzun G, Erdağ E, Baykan B, Tzartos J, Gezen-Ak D, Samancı B, Dursun E, Zisimopoulou P, Karagiorgou K, Stergiou C, Şahin E, Ekizoğlu E, Kürtüncü M, Tüzün E. Glial and neuronal antibodies in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurol Sci. 2017 Oct;38(10):1817-1822. doi: 10.1007/s10072-017-3066-7. Epub 2017 Jul 21. PMID: 28733756.
  35. Cordts I, Bodart N, Hartmann K, Karagiorgou K, Tzartos JS, Mei L, Reimann J, Van Damme P, Rivner MH, Vigneron A, Weis J, Schulz JB, Tzartos SJ, Claeys KG. Screening for lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4-, agrin-, and titin- antibodies and exploring the autoimmune spectrum in myasthenia gravis. J Neurol. 2017 Jun;264(6):1193-1203. doi: 10.1007/s00415-017-8514-z. Epub 2017 May 17. PMID: 28516329.
  36. Hong Y, Zisimopoulou P, Trakas N, Karagiorgou K, Stergiou C, Skeie GO, Hao HJ, Gao X, Owe JF, Zhang X, Yue YX, Romi F, Wang Q, Li HF, Gilhus NE, Tzartos SJ. Multiple antibody detection in 'seronegative' myasthenia gravis patients. Eur J Neurol. 2017 Jun;24(6):844-850. doi: 10.1111/ene.13300. Epub 2017 May 4. PMID: 28470860.
  37. Giastas P, Zouridakis M, Tzartos SJ. Understanding structure-function relationships of the human neuronal acetylcholine receptor: insights from the first crystal structures of neuronal subunits. Br J Pharmacol. 2018 Jun;175(11):1880-1891. doi: 10.1111/bph.13838. Epub 2017 Jun 20. PMID: 28452148; PMCID: PMC5980119.
  38. Kruger JM, Karussis D, Zisimopoulou P, Petrou P. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 4-Positive Myasthenia Gravis in a Double-Seronegative, Electromyography-Negative Patient. J Neuroophthalmol. 2017 Sep;37(3):285-286. doi: 10.1097/WNO.0000000000000499. PMID: 28350570.
  39. Türkoğlu R, Lassmann H, Aker FV, Tzartos JTzartos S, Tüzün E. Recurrent tumefactive demyelinating lesions: a pathological study. Clin Neuropathol. 2017 Jul/Aug;36(4):195-198. doi: 10.5414/NP301005. PMID: 28211783.
  40. Lazaridis K, Baltatzidi V, Trakas N, Koutroumpi E, Karandreas N, Tzartos SJ. Characterization of a reproducible rat EAMG model induced with various human acetylcholine receptor domains. J Neuroimmunol. 2017 Feb 15;303:13-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2016.12.011. Epub 2016 Dec 21. PMID: 28038891.
  41. Koneczny I, Stevens JA, De Rosa A, Huda S, Huijbers MG, Saxena A, Maestri M, Lazaridis K, Zisimopoulou P, Tzartos S, Verschuuren J, van der Maarel SM, van Damme P, De Baets MH, Molenaar PC, Vincent A, Ricciardi R, Martinez-Martinez P, Losen M. IgG4 autoantibodies against muscle-specific kinase undergo Fab-arm exchange in myasthenia gravis patients. J Autoimmun. 2017 Feb;77:104-115. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2016.11.005. Epub 2016 Dec 10. PMID: 27965060.
  42. Lykhmus O, Koval L, Pastuhova D, Zouridakis M, Tzartos S, Komisarenko S, Skok M. The role of carbohydrate component of recombinant α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor extracellular domain in its immunogenicity and functional effects of resulting antibodies. Immunobiology. 2016 Dec;221(12):1355-1361. doi: 10.1016/j.imbio.2016.07.012. Epub 2016 Jul 25. PMID: 27498631.
  43. Kouvatsos N, Giastas P, Chroni-Tzartou D, Poulopoulou C, Tzartos SJ. Crystal structure of a human neuronal nAChR extracellular domain in pentameric assembly: Ligand-bound α2 homopentamer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Aug 23;113(34):9635-40. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1602619113. Epub 2016 Aug 4. PMID: 27493220; PMCID: PMC5003238.
  44. Küçükerden M, Huda R, Tüzün E, Yılmaz A, Skriapa L, Trakas N, Strait RT, Finkelman FD, Kabadayı S, Zisimopoulou P, Tzartos S, Christadoss P. MuSK induced experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis does not require IgG1 antibody to MuSK. J Neuroimmunol. 2016 Jun 15;295-296:84-92. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2016.04.003. Epub 2016 Apr 11. PMID: 27235354.
  45. Gilhus NE, Skeie GO, Romi F, Lazaridis K, Zisimopoulou P, Tzartos S. Myasthenia gravis - autoantibody characteristics and their implications for therapy. Nat Rev Neurol. 2016 May;12(5):259-68. doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2016.44. Epub 2016 Apr 22. PMID: 27103470.
  46. Stergiou C, Lazaridis K, Zouvelou V, Tzartos J, Mantegazza R, Antozzi C, Andreetta F, Evoli A, Deymeer F, Saruhan-Direskeneli G, Durmus H, Brenner T, Vaknin A, Berrih-Aknin S, Behin A, Sharshar T, De Baets M, Losen M, Martinez- Martinez P, Kleopa KA, Zamba-Papanicolaou E, Kyriakides T, Kostera-Pruszczyk A, Szczudlik P, Szyluk B, Lavrnic D, Basta I, Peric S, Tallaksen C, Maniaol A, Gilhus NE, Casasnovas Pons C, Pitha J, Jakubíkova M, Hanisch F, Bogomolovas J, Labeit D, Labeit S, Tzartos SJ. Titin antibodies in "seronegative" myasthenia gravis--A new role for an old antigen. J Neuroimmunol. 2016 Mar 15;292:108-15. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2016.01.018. Epub 2016 Jan 27. PMID: 26943968.
  47. Ulusoy C, Zibandeh N, Yıldırım S, Trakas N, Zisimopoulou P, Küçükerden M, Tașlı H, Tzartos S, Göker K, Tüzün E, Akkoç T. Dental follicle mesenchymal stem cell administration ameliorates muscle weakness in MuSK-immunized mice. J Neuroinflammation. 2015 Dec 9;12:231. doi: 10.1186/s12974-015-0451-0. PMID: 26646841; PMCID: PMC4673854.
  48. Özkök E, Durmuş H, Yetimler B, Taşlı H, Trakas N, Ulusoy C, Lagoumintzis G, Tzartos S, Tüzün E. Reduced muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity in MuSK- immunized mice. Clin Neuropathol. 2015 Nov-Dec;34(6):359-63. doi: 10.5414/NP300875. PMID: 26365462.
  49. Tsonis AI, Zisimopoulou P, Lazaridis K, Tzartos J, Matsigkou E, Zouvelou V, Mantegazza R, Antozzi C, Andreetta F, Evoli A, Deymeer F, Saruhan-Direskeneli G, Durmus H, Brenner T, Vaknin A, Berrih-Aknin S, Behin A, Sharshar T, De Baets M, Losen M, Martinez-Martinez P, Kleopa KA, Zamba-Papanicolaou E, Kyriakides T, Kostera-Pruszczyk A, Szczudlik P, Szyluk B, Lavrnic D, Basta I, Peric S, Tallaksen C, Maniaol A, Casasnovas Pons C, Pitha J, Jakubíkova M, Hanisch F, Tzartos SJ. MuSK autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis detected by cell based assay--A multinational study. J Neuroimmunol. 2015 Jul 15;284:10-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2015.04.015. Epub 2015 Apr 27. PMID: 26025053.
  50. Yilmaz V, Oflazer P, Aysal F, Durmus H, Poulas K, Yentur SP, Gulsen-Parman Y, Tzartos S, Marx A, Tuzun E, Deymeer F, Saruhan-Direskeneli G. Differential Cytokine Changes in Patients with Myasthenia Gravis with Antibodies against AChR and MuSK. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 20;10(4):e0123546. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123546. PMID: 25893403; PMCID: PMC4403992.
  51. Lykhmus O, Gergalova G, Zouridakis M, Tzartos S, Komisarenko S, Skok M. Inflammation decreases the level of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain mitochondria and makes them more susceptible to apoptosis induction. Int Immunopharmacol. 2015 Nov;29(1):148-51. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2015.04.007. Epub 2015 Apr 15. PMID: 25887272.
  52. Arnaouteli S, Giastas P, Andreou A, Tzanodaskalaki M, Aldridge C, Tzartos SJ, Vollmer W, Eliopoulos E, Bouriotis V. Two Putative Polysaccharide Deacetylases Are Required for Osmotic Stability and Cell Shape Maintenance in Bacillus anthracis. J Biol Chem. 2015 May 22;290(21):13465-78. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.640029. Epub 2015 Mar 30. PMID: 25825488; PMCID: PMC4505593.
  53. Lykhmus O, Voytenko L, Koval L, Mykhalskiy S, Kholin V, Peschana K, Zouridakis M, Tzartos S, Komisarenko S, Skok M. α7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-specific antibody induces inflammation and amyloid β42 accumulation in the mouse brain to impair memory. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 27;10(3):e0122706. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122706. PMID: 25816313; PMCID: PMC4376778.
  54. Losen M, Martinez-Martinez P, Molenaar PC, Lazaridis K, Tzartos S, Brenner T, Duan RS, Luo J, Lindstrom J, Kusner L. Standardization of the experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) model by immunization of rats with Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptors--Recommendations for methods and experimental designs. Exp Neurol. 2015 Aug;270:18-28. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2015.03.010. Epub 2015 Mar 18. PMID: 25796590; PMCID: PMC4466156.
  55. Kusner LL, Losen M, Vincent A, Lindstrom J, Tzartos S, Lazaridis K, Martinez-Martinez P. Guidelines for pre-clinical assessment of the acetylcholine receptor--specific passive transfer myasthenia gravis model-Recommendations for methods and experimental designs. Exp Neurol. 2015 Aug;270:3-10. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2015.02.025. Epub 2015 Mar 3. PMID: 25743217; PMCID: PMC4466131.
  56. Azam L, Papakyriakou A, Zouridakis M, Giastas P, Tzartos SJ, McIntosh JM. Molecular interaction of α-conotoxin RgIA with the rat α9α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2015 May;87(5):855-64. doi: 10.1124/mol.114.096511. Epub 2015 Mar 4. Erratum in: Mol Pharmacol. 2016 Oct;90(4):415-7. PMID: 25740413; PMCID: PMC4407738.
  57. Tuzun E, Berrih-Aknin S, Brenner T, Kusner LL, Le Panse R, Yang H, Tzartos S, Christadoss P. Guidelines for standard preclinical experiments in the mouse model of myasthenia gravis induced by acetylcholine receptor immunization. Exp Neurol. 2015 Aug;270:11-7. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2015.02.009. Epub 2015 Feb 16. PMID: 25697844.
  58. Maurer M, Bougoin S, Feferman T, Frenkian M, Bismuth J, Mouly V, Clairac G, Tzartos S, Fadel E, Eymard B, Fuchs S, Souroujon MC, Berrih-Aknin S. IL-6 and Akt are involved in muscular pathogenesis in myasthenia gravis. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2015 Jan 15;3:1. doi: 10.1186/s40478-014-0179-6. PMID: 25627031; PMCID: PMC4308930.
  59. Lazaridis K, Evaggelakou P, Bentenidi E, Sideri A, Grapsa E, Tzartos SJ. Specific adsorbents for myasthenia gravis autoantibodies using mutants of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor extracellular domains. J Neuroimmunol. 2015 Jan 15;278:19-25. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2014.12.001. Epub 2014 Dec 3. PMID: 25595248.
  60. Avidan N, Le Panse R, Harbo HF, Bernasconi P, Poulas K, Ginzburg E, Cavalcante P, Colleoni L, Baggi F, Antozzi C, Truffault F, Horn-Saban S, Pöschel S, Zagoriti Z, Maniaol A, Lie BA, Bernard I, Saoudi A, Illes Z, Casasnovas Pons C, Melms A, Tzartos S, Willcox N, Kostera-Pruszczyk A, Tallaksen C, Mantegazza R, Berrih-Aknin S, Miller A. VAV1 and BAFF, via NFκB pathway, are genetic risk factors for myasthenia gravis. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2014 May;1(5):329-39. doi: 10.1002/acn3.51. Epub 2014 Apr 11. PMID: 25356403; PMCID: PMC4184684.
  61. Tzartos JS, Zisimopoulou P, Rentzos M, Karandreas N, Zouvelou V, Evangelakou P, Tsonis A, Thomaidis T, Lauria G, Andreetta F, Mantegazza R, Tzartos SJ. LRP4 antibodies in serum and CSF from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2014 Feb;1(2):80-7. doi: 10.1002/acn3.26. Epub 2013 Dec 30. PMID: 25356387; PMCID: PMC4212481.
  62. Zis P, Tzartos SJ, Tavernarakis A. Authors' reply to Wang et al. comment on "Parkinson's disease associated with myasthenia gravis and rheumatoid arthritis". Neurol Sci. 2015 Mar;36(3):487. doi: 10.1007/s10072-014-1978-z. Epub 2014 Oct 9. PMID: 25296987.
  63. Zouridakis M, Giastas P, Zarkadas E, Chroni-Tzartou D, Bregestovski P, Tzartos SJ. Crystal structures of free and antagonist-bound states of human α9 nicotinic receptor extracellular domain. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2014 Nov;21(11):976-80. doi: 10.1038/nsmb.2900. Epub 2014 Oct 5. PMID: 25282151.
  64. Tüzün E, Tzartos J, Ekizoğlu E, Stergiou C, Zisimopoulou P, Coban A, Shugaiv E, Türkoğlu R, Kürtüncü M, Baykan B, Tzartos S. Aquaporin-1 antibody in neuromyelitis optical patients. Eur Neurol. 2014;72(5-6):271-2. doi: 10.1159/000364904. Epub 2014 Sep 27. PMID: 25277962.
  65. Skriapa L, Zisimopoulou P, Trakas N, Grapsa E, Tzartos SJ. Expression of extracellular domains of muscle specific kinase (MuSK) and use as immunoadsorbents for the development of an antigen-specific therapy. J Neuroimmunol. 2014 Nov 15;276(1-2):150-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2014.09.013. Epub 2014 Sep 19. PMID: 25262156.
  66. Kordas G, Lagoumintzis G, Sideris S, Poulas K, Tzartos SJ. Direct proof of the in vivo pathogenic role of the AChR autoantibodies from myasthenia gravis patients. PLoS One. 2014 Sep 26;9(9):e108327. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108327. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2015;10(1):e0117673. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2015 Mar 25;10(3):e0120947. PMID: 25259739; PMCID: PMC4178151.
  67. Tsivgoulis G, Dervenoulas G, Kokotis P, Zompola C, Tzartos JSTzartos SJ, Voumvourakis KI. Double seronegative myasthenia gravis with low density lipoprotein-4 (LRP4) antibodies presenting with isolated ocular symptoms. J Neurol Sci. 2014 Nov 15;346(1-2):328-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2014.09.013. Epub 2014 Sep 17. PMID: 25248951.
  68. Kouvatsos N, Niarchos A, Zisimopoulou P, Eliopoulos E, Poulas K, Tzartos S. Purification and functional characterization of a truncated human α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Int J Biol Macromol. 2014 Sep;70:320-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.06.058. Epub 2014 Jul 8. PMID: 25014634.
  69. Tsivgoulis G, Dervenoulas G, Tzartos SJ, Zompola C, Papageorgiou SG, Voumvourakis K. Double seropositive myasthenia gravis with acetylcholine receptor and lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 antibodies. Muscle Nerve. 2014 Jun;49(6):930-1. doi: 10.1002/mus.24166. PMID: 24638957.
  70. Ulusoy C, Kim E, Tüzün E, Huda R, Yılmaz V, Poulas K, Trakas N, Skriapa L, Niarchos A, Strait RT, Finkelman FD, Turan S, Zisimopoulou P, Tzartos S, Saruhan-Direskeneli G, Christadoss P. Preferential production of IgG1, IL-4 and IL-10 in MuSK-immunized mice. Clin Immunol. 2014 Apr;151(2):155-63. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2014.02.012. Epub 2014 Feb 28. PMID: 24589747.
  71. Zis P, Argiriadou V, Temperikidis PP, Zikou L, Tzartos SJ, Tavernarakis A. Parkinson's disease associated with myasthenia gravis and rheumatoid arthritis. Neurol Sci. 2014 May;35(5):797-9. doi: 10.1007/s10072-014-1660-5. Epub 2014 Feb 6. PMID: 24500521.
  72. Vrolix K, Fraussen J, Losen M, Stevens J, Lazaridis K, Molenaar PC, Somers V, Bracho MA, Le Panse R, Stinissen P, Berrih-Aknin S, Maessen JG, Van Garsse L, Buurman WA, Tzartos SJ, De Baets MH, Martinez-Martinez P. Clonal heterogeneity of thymic B cells from early-onset myasthenia gravis patients with antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor. J Autoimmun. 2014 Aug;52:101-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2013.12.008. Epub 2014 Jan 16. PMID: 24439114.
  73. Lagoumintzis G, Zisimopoulou P, Trakas N, Grapsa E, Poulas K, Tzartos SJ. Scale up and safety parameters of antigen specific immunoadsorption of human anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies. J Neuroimmunol. 2014 Feb 15;267(1-2):1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2013.11.001. Epub 2013 Nov 10. PMID: 24412396.
  74. Marino M, Maiuri MT, Di Sante G, Scuderi F, La Carpia F, Trakas N, Provenzano C, Zisimopoulou P, Ria F, Tzartos SJ, Evoli A, Bartoccioni E. T cell repertoire in DQ5-positive MuSK-positive myasthenia gravis patients. J Autoimmun. 2014 Aug;52:113-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2013.12.007. Epub 2014 Jan 4. PMID: 24397960.
  75. Zouvelou V, Zisimopoulou P, Psimenou E, Matsigkou E, Stamboulis E, Tzartos SJ. AChR-myasthenia gravis switching to double-seropositive several years after the onset. J Neuroimmunol. 2014 Feb 15;267(1-2):111-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2013.12.012. Epub 2013 Dec 22. PMID: 24388224.
  76. Niarchos A, Zouridakis M, Douris V, Georgostathi A, Kalamida D, Sotiriadis A, Poulas K, Iatrou K, Tzartos SJ. Expression of a highly antigenic and native- like folded extracellular domain of the human α1 subunit of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, suitable for use in antigen specific therapies for Myasthenia Gravis. PLoS One. 2013 Dec 20;8(12):e84791. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084791. PMID: 24376846; PMCID: PMC3869910.
  77. Zisimopoulou P, Evangelakou P, Tzartos J, Lazaridis K, Zouvelou V, Mantegazza R, Antozzi C, Andreetta F, Evoli A, Deymeer F, Saruhan-Direskeneli G, Durmus H, Brenner T, Vaknin A, Berrih-Aknin S, Frenkian Cuvelier M, Stojkovic T, DeBaets M, Losen M, Martinez-Martinez P, Kleopa KA, Zamba-Papanicolaou E, Kyriakides T, Kostera-Pruszczyk A, Szczudlik P, Szyluk B, Lavrnic D, Basta I, Peric S, Tallaksen C, Maniaol A, Tzartos SJ. A comprehensive analysis of the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of anti-LRP4 in myasthenia gravis. J Autoimmun. 2014 Aug;52:139-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2013.12.004. Epub 2013 Dec 24. PMID: 24373505.
  78. Zagoriti Z, Kambouris ME, Patrinos GP, Tzartos SJ, Poulas K. Recent advances in genetic predisposition of myasthenia gravis. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:404053. doi: 10.1155/2013/404053. Epub 2013 Nov 5. PMID: 24294607; PMCID: PMC3835684.
  79. Lazaridis K, Zisimopoulou P, Giastas P, Bitzopoulou K, Evangelakou P, Sideri A, Tzartos SJ. Expression of human AChR extracellular domain mutants with improved characteristics. Int J Biol Macromol. 2014 Feb;63:210-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.11.003. Epub 2013 Nov 15. PMID: 24246999.
  80. Tzartos JS, Stergiou C, Kilidireas K, Zisimopoulou P, Thomaidis T, Tzartos SJ. Anti-aquaporin-1 autoantibodies in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 23;8(9):e74773. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074773. PMID: 24086369; PMCID: PMC3781161.
  81. Zouvelou V, Zisimopoulou P, Rentzos M, Karandreas N, Evangelakou P, Stamboulis E, Tzartos SJ. Double seronegative myasthenia gravis with anti-LRP 4 antibodies. Neuromuscul Disord. 2013 Jul;23(7):568-70. doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2013.03.013. Epub 2013 Apr 25. PMID: 23768983.
  82. Zouvelou V, Stamboulis E, Skriapa L, Tzartos SJ. MuSK-Ab positive myasthenia: not always grave. J Neurol Sci. 2013 Aug 15;331(1-2):150-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2013.05.001. Epub 2013 May 23. PMID: 23706725.
  83. Zisimopoulou P, Brenner T, Trakas N, Tzartos SJ. Serological diagnostics in myasthenia gravis based on novel assays and recently identified antigens. Autoimmun Rev. 2013 Jul;12(9):924-30. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2013.03.002. Epub 2013 Mar 26. PMID: 23537507.
  84. Zouvelou V, Kyriazi S, Rentzos M, Belimezi M, Micheli MA, Tzartos SJ, Stamboulis E. Double-seropositive myasthenia gravis. Muscle Nerve. 2013 Mar;47(3):465-6. doi: 10.1002/mus.23645. Epub 2013 Jan 16. PMID: 23322599.


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