MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (MG)
• Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (by 2 RIAs).
• MuSK (by 2 RIAs)
In addition to the classical RIAs, all samples are also tested with our new ~5-10X more sensitive RIA for further confirmation of the result (especially useful in the case of ambiguous or borderline results).
• Titin (by ELISA and RIA). Recommended in MG patients (usually positive in AChR antibodies), under 50 years of age, supporting the presence thymoma. In negative anti-AChR / MuSK, and negative anti-Titin with ELISA, we also apply a highly sensitive RIA, free of extra charge, as supportive information for the final diagnosis of MG by the physician (Stergiou et al. J. Neuroimmunol. 2016).
• Ryanodine receptor (RyR). It is recommended to MG patients (usually positive in anti-AChR antibodies), as a further indication of the presence of thymoma
New tests for MG
• LRΡ4. This is the new antigen for MG, detected in ~9-19% of “seronegative” MG patients (according to Zhang, Tzartos et al. Arch Neurol, 2012. Zisimopoulou, Tzartos et al. J. Autoimm. 2013)
• MuSK with cell based assay (CBA). Detected in ~13% of the “seronegative” MG patients (according to Vincent et al. Ann. NYAS 2012 and Tsonis et al. J. Neuroimmunol. 2013).
• AChR clusters or "low affinity" AChR antibodies (according to Leite et al. Brain 2008).
Note: the above three tests (antibodies to LRΡ4, to MuSK and to AChR clusters, all with CBA) are new, recommended for those who are negative in the first two tests, and tend to eliminate the "seronegative" MG. However, false positive results cannot be excluded at this stage.
MYASTHENIC SYNDROME LAMBERT-EATON (LEMS)
• Antibodies against calcium channels (VGCC) type P/Q and type N
• Antibodies against ganglionic α3 AChR and against Hu(ANNA-1)
MYOSITIS (Polymyositis / Dermatomyositis)
• Antibodies against Mi-2α, Mi-2β, Ku, PM-Scl100, PM-Scl75, SRP, Jo-1, PL-7, Pl-12, OJ, EJ, Ro-52, ΤΙF1γ, MDA5, NXP2, SAE1
Inclusion Body Myositis
• Antibodies againstMup44 (cytosolic 5- nucleotidase 1A, cN-1A)
• Antibodies against gangliosides GM1, GM2, GM3, GM4, GD1a, GD1b, GD2, GD3, GT1, GT2, GQ1b, Sulfatide
• Antibodies against SGPG and the protein MAG (myelin associated glycoprotein).
• Antibodies against Contactin-1 and Neurofascin-155
NEUROMYELITIS OPTICA (NMO) or Devic’s disease
Antibodies against the proteins:
• Aquaporin-4 (AQP4)
• Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)
• Aquaporin-1 (AQP1, according to Tzartos et al. Plos1, 2013)
• Detection of the protein GFAP in CSF during relapse
• Detection of oligoclonal IgG bands in serum and CSF
• Determination of albumin and IgG concentration in serum and CSF
• Antibodies against: Hu (ANNA-1), Ri (ANNA-2), Yo (PCA-1), PNMA2 (Ma2/Ta), CV2 (CRMP-5), amphiphysin, recoverin, SOX1 (AGNA), zic4, Tr(DNER)
• Antibodies against ITPR1 (Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1, I3PR) και CARP VIII (Carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII) and TR(DNER) by CBA
• Potassium channels (VGKC. Kv1.1, 1.2, 1.6)
• Caspr2, LGI1 (proteins associated with potassium channels)
• NMDAR, AMPAR1, 2 and GABARb
• GAD65 (glutamic acid decarboxylase)
• Glycine Receptor
• Dopamine Receptor
Antibody test packages for syndromes related to autoimmune encephalitis:
Limbic and NMDA encephalitis
• NMDAR, AMPAR1,2, GABARb, GAD65, Caspr2+LGI1
• mGLuR5, Paraneoplastic antigens, VGΚC
Autoimmune cerebellar ataxia
• Paraneoplastic antigens
• GAD65, mGluR1, ITPR1, CARP VIII
• VGCC-P/Q, VGCC-N
• VGKC and Caspr2+LGI1
• Paraneoplastic antigens (Ma1/2, CRMP-5/CV2, Amphiphysin, SOX1, Tr)
• NMDAR, AMPAR1,2, GABAΒR, GABAAR, mGluR5, GAD65
• VGKC and Caspr2+LGI1
• Paraneoplastic antigens (Hu, Ri, Yo, CRMP5/ CV2, Amphiphysin, SOX1, Tr)
• NMDAR, AMPAR1,2, GABAΒR, GAD65
• NMDAR, Caspr2+LG1, AMPAR1,2, VGΚC
Sleep disorders of autoimmune etiology
• Caspr2+LG1, AQP4, NMDAR, IgLON5
• Paraneoplastic antigens (Ma2, Ri)
• CASPR2+LGI1, AQP4, VGΚC
Vision disorders of autoimmune etiology
• AQP4, MOG
• Paraneoplastic (CRMP-5/CV2, recoverin, Hu,Yo,Ma2,Ri,Tr) , VGCC-P/Q
Stiff-Person Syndrome / PERM
• GAD65, Glycine Receptor
• Paraneoplastic (Hu,CV2)
• GAD65, Caspr2+LG1
Opsoclonus & Myoclonus
• Paraneoplastic (Ri, Hu)
• NMDAR, LG1
• Paraneoplastic (CRMP-5, PCA-2, Hu, Ri, amphiphysin, Ma2)
• AQP4, MOG
• Paraneoplastic (CRMP-5/CV2, amphiphysin, Ηυ, Ri, Yu, Ma2)
• Paraneoplastic (Hu, Ri, Yo, CRMP-5/CV2, amphiphysin, SOX1)
• Detection of the proteins 14-3-3, Tau and phospho-Tau(181-p) in the CSF.
• Detection of PrPSc in the CSF, by RT-QuIC.
• Detection of the proteins: beta-amyloid(1-42) and (1-40), total Tau and phospho-Tau(181-p)
In addition to our own research for the development of new diagnostics, we also welcome participation in research protocols in collaboration with interested clinicians.